The four Rs is a tool which can be used to clarify the roles played by different stakeholders and the nature of relationships between them. Assessment and negotiation amongst stakeholders of these roles and relationships is necessary before developing the capacities needed for improving policies and institutions. The four Rs tool aims to operationalise the concept of ‘roles’ by unpacking these into Rights, Responsibilities, Revenues (benefits) of stakeholders, and the Relationships between stakeholder groups. This is particularly useful in contexts where roles need re-thinking, negotiating and developing.
The four Rs may be seen as a complement to stakeholder power analysis, and may form a useful tool to apply as part of it, since it can:
- Explore stakeholders’ relative powers, by proxy assessment
- Assess stakeholders’ mutual relationships
- Pave the way for role negotiation by establishing stakeholder dialogue and agreement
While the four Rs was developed as a framework and tool for working towards better forestry, it has good potential for use in other aspects of natural resource management and the policies and institutions associated with them.
A summary card of this tool is available to download in four languages in PDF format:
English (42K) | French (43K) | Spanish (44K) | Portuguese (43K)
The complete tool is also available (PDF format):
English (86K, 11pp) | French (97K, 13pp) | Spanish (98K, 13pp) | Portuguese (106K, 13pp)
Please cite this tool as:
Mayers, J. 2005. The four Rs. Power tools series. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK.
For further information:
- The Four Rs complements the power tool Stakeholder Power Analysis
- Dubois, O. 1998. Capacity to manage Role Changes in Forestry: Introducing the ‘Four Rs’ Framework. Forest Participation Series No. 11, International Institute for Environment and Development, London